AbstractInositol hexakisphosphate kinase 2 (IP6K2) potentiates pro-apoptotic signalling and increases the sensitivity of mammalian cells to cytotoxic agents. Diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate kinase (PPIP5K) generates inositol pyrophosphates (InsPPs) that are structurally distinct from those produced by IP6K2 and their possible roles in affecting cell viability remain unclear. In the present study, we tested the impact of PPIP5K1 on cellular sensitivity to various genotoxic agents to determine if PPIP5K1 and IP6K2 contribute similarly to apoptosis. We observed that PPIP5K1 overexpression decreased sensitivity of cells toward several cytotoxic agents, including etoposide, cisplatin, and sulindac. We further tested the impact of PPIP5K1 overexpression on an array of apoptosis markers and observed that PPIP5K1 decreased p53 phosphorylation on key residues, including Ser-15, -46, and -392. Overexpression of a kinase-impaired PPIP5K1 mutant failed to protect cells from apoptosis, indicating this protection is a consequence PPIP5K1 catalytic activity, in contrast with the sensitivity conferred by IP6K2, which is dependent on both catalytic and non-catalytic functions. These observations reveal distinct roles for PPIP5K1 and IP6K2 and the InsPPs they produce in controlling cell death.